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12 Modal Verbs - 能愿动词 (HSK 1-4 Grammar Points): 能 会 要 想 可能 可以 应该 该 愿意 敢 ...

⬅️四级语法(语法等级大纲 2021)

语法等级大纲 2021
能愿动词 - Modal Verbs (HSK level 1-4)
  1. 【一02】能愿动词:
  2. 【一03】能愿动词:
  3. 【二01】能愿动词:可能 可以
  4. 【二02】能愿动词:应该 该
  5. 【二03】能愿动词:愿意
  6. 【三03】能愿动词:
  7. 【三04】能愿动词:需要
  8. 【四01】能愿动词:
  9. 【四76】A.4.9 口语格式:说什么/怎么(着)也得……
Modal verb-能愿动词 is also known as auxiliary verb or helping verb-助动词. They are placed before verb or adjective to indicate ability, permission, possibility, necessity, wish, and desire, etc. In different contexts, these modal verbs have different meanings and usages.

Grammar Points:

1. 🎁 Subject + 能 + Verb Top
We can use the modal verb 能 to express ability, possibility, permission, etc. The negative form of 能 is 不能. The affirmative-negative form is 能不能.
1. 我能清楚地看见它。
I can see it quite clearly.
✔️ expressing ability.
(能 = have the physical ability to do something.)
2. 我能跟你谈谈吗?
Can I talk to you for a few minutes?
⛔ 我能能跟你谈吗?
✔️ (Modal verbs can't be reduplicated. We can repeat the main verb 谈.)
3. 行李不能无人看管。
Luggage must not be left unattended.
✔️ expressing obligation
(it is against the rules.)
4. 他们今天不能来。
They cannot come today.
✔️ expressing possibility (不能 = not possible or not allowed)
5. 你能不能来吃饭?
Can you come for dinner?
⛔ 你能来不来吃饭?
✔️ (Affirmative Negative Question: using 能不能, not 来不来)
6. 我不能不考虑他的建议。
I cannot afford to ignore his advice.
✔️ 【不能不 = 必须】(expressing necessity)
= 我必须考虑他的建议。

2. 🎁 Subject + 会 + Verb Top
We can use the modal verb 会 to express ability or possibility, meaning "able to; can; be will". We can also use it to express the future tense. The negative form is 不会. 会 can be used to reply a question.
7. 我现在会游泳了。
I can swim now.
✔️ 会 = be able to through acquired knowledge or skill.
我不会游泳。- I do not know how to swim.
8. 你会不会说汉语?
Do you speak Chinese?
😤📣 会。
✔️ answering the question with the modal verb 会, not with the main verb 说.
9. 他有时很会说服人。
He can be very persuasive sometimes.
10. 如果成本增加,价格就会上涨。
If costs increase, prices will rise.
✔️ expressing the future tense.
11. 他今天不会来。
He will not come today.
他今天会来看你。- He will come to see you today.
12. 她是你的朋友,不会不帮助你。
She is your friend and will definitely help you.
✔️ 【不会不 = 一定会】
= 她一定会帮助你。

3. 🎁 Subject + 要 + Verb Top
We can use the modal verb 要 to express request, offer, wish, advice, etc. It also can be used to talk about what is going to happen in the future. When used in an imperative sentence, 不要 means "Don't".
13. 我要喝一杯咖啡。
I'd like a cup of coffee.
✔️ expressing that you want to do something.
14. 我要不要带一些食物?
Shall I bring some food?
✔️ expressing offer.
15. 我要感谢你们的帮助。
I would like to thank you for your help.
✔️ expressing desire.
16. 衣服要定期地洗和换。
Clothes should be changed and washed regularly.
✔️ expressing advice.
17. 我要迟到了!
I'm going to be late!
✔️ expressing probability
18. 不要管与自己无关的事。
Don't interfere in what doesn't concern you.
✔️ 不要 = Don't

4. 🎁 Subject + 想 + Verb Top
The modal verb 想 can be used to express wish, desire, etc., meaning "would like to". Compared with other modal verbs, 想 is in a relatively soft tone.
19. 你想喝杯茶吗?
Would you like a cup of tea?
20. 我想问你几个问题。
I'd like to ask you a few questions.
21. 我想感谢父母对我的支持。
I would like to thank my parents for their support.
22. 我不想再参加任何考试。
I don't want to take any more exams.
23. 你想不想参加聚会?
Would you like to go to the party?
⛔ 你想参不参加聚会?

5. 🎁 Subject + 可能 + Verb Top
The modal verbs 可能 can be used to express possibility. We use the aspect particle (着/了/过) after the main verb, not after the modal verb.
24. 她可能需要一些帮助。
She may need some help.
✔️ expressing possibility
25. 月球上可能有生命吗?
Could there be life on the moon?
26. 他不可能得到这份工作。
It is impossible for him to get the job.
✔️ 不可能 = it is impossible
27. 你可能不喜欢这个主意。
You may not like this idea.
✔️ 可能不 = may not
28. 那可能不是真的。
That may not be true.
It can't be true. or It is impossible to be true.
29. 他可能忘了给你打电话。
He may have forgotten to call you.
⛔ 他可能了忘给你打电话。
✔️ 可能 + Verb + Aspect Particle (着/了/过)

6. 🎁 Subject + 可以 + Verb Top
The modal verb 可以 can be used to express permission, possibility, advice, etc. The affirmative-negative form is 可不可以 or 可以不可以.
30. 我可以进来吗?
May I come in?
✔️ expressing permission
31. 许多犯罪活动是可以防止的。
A lot of crime could be prevented.
✔️ expressing possibility
32. 我的车现在可以重新上路了。
My car can now be on the road again.
33. 你可以下星期再做这些工作。
You can do these tasks next week.
34. 我不可以玩电脑游戏。
I'm not allowed to play computer games.
✔️ 不可以 = cannot or not allowed
35. 你可不可以把这本书借给我?
Can you lend me this book?
😤📣 当然可以。- Of course.
✔️ Affirmative Negative Form = 可不可以 or 可以不可以

7. 🎁 Modal Verbs: 应该/该 + Verb Top
The modal verbs 应该 and 该 can be used to express obligation, duty, correctness, etc. It means "should; ought to".
36. 11点多了,我该回家了。
It's past 11. I should go home.
37. 我知道我该戒烟。
I know I should quit smoking.
38. 你应该多运动运动。
You should take more exercise.
39. 我应不应该告诉他这件事?
Should I tell him about it?
40. 她本应该现在就到这儿的。
She should be here by now.
✔️ (it was expected that she would be)
41. 你不应该把车开得这么快。
You shouldn't drive so fast.

8. 🎁 Subject + 愿意 + Verb Top
The modal verb 愿意 can be used to express "be willing to do something". 更愿意 is used to indicate one's preference, meaning "would rather".
42. 我愿意试试。
I'm willing to try.
43. 我更愿意喝杯啤酒。
I'd rather have a beer.
44. 每个人都愿意参加这个活动。
Everyone is willing to participate in this event.
45. 你愿意跟我一起去吗?
Would you like to go with me?
46. 她不愿意把她的想法说出来。
She is unwilling to express her thoughts.
47. 你愿不愿意教我跳舞?
Would you like to teach me to dance?

9. 🎁 Subject + 敢 + Verb Top
The modal verb 敢 indicates "have the courage to do something" or "challenge someone to do something", meaning "dare".
48. 你敢告诉他这个消息吗?
Dare you tell him the news?
49. 他不敢得罪他的老板。
He dare not offend his boss.
50. 我没敢想那要花多少钱。
I didn't dare think how much it's going to cost.
51. 你敢不敢对我说实话?
Dare you tell me the truth?

10. 🎁 Subject + 需要 + Verb Top
The modal verb 需要 can be used to express necessity or obligation, meaning "need". The negative form is 不需要.
52. 我真的需要减肥了。
I really need to lose some weight.
53. 我们需要保护自然环境。
We need to protect the environment.
54. 我需要坐下来喝杯茶。
I need to sit down and have a cup of tea.
55. 你需要去运动一下。
You need to do some workout.
56. 你不需要买任何东西。
You do not need to buy anything.
57. 你需不需要休息一会儿?
Do you need to rest for a while?

11. 🎁 Subject + 得 + Verb Top
The modal verb 得 is used to express "need, should, must". We don't use 得 to answer question. The negative form is 不用, 用不着 or 甭, but not 不得. 得 is used in spoken language.
58. 别挂断电话,我们一定得谈谈!
Don't hang up on me. We must talk!
59. 你一定得看医生。
You must see a doctor.
- You don't need to see a doctor.
60. 一旦开始,你就得继续。
Once you begin,you must continue.
61. 谁要是迟到,他就得等在外面。
If anyone is late, he'll have to wait outside.
62. 对不起,我真得赶紧走了。
Sorry, I really have to leave now.
63. 这个周末我真得修修自行车了。
I really must get my bike repaired this weekend.

12. 🎁 说什么也得 + Verb | 怎么也得 + Verb Top
The structure 说什么也得 or 怎么也得 is used before the verb to emphasize that the subject are definitely going to do something, even if there are obstacles or difficulties.
64. 你怎么也得喝杯茶再走。
You should at least have some tea before leaving.
65. 她是你妹妹,你怎么也得帮帮她。
She is your sister. You have to help her no matter what.
66. 他生病了,我说什么也得去看看他。
He is sick. I shall go to see him anyhow.
67. 咱们这次说什么也得见一面。
This time, we must meet anyway.